A heterotroph (/?h?t?r?tro?f/; ?????? heteros = "another", "different" and ????? trophe = "nutrition") is an organism that cannot fix carbon and uses organic carbon for growth.[1] This contrasts with autotrophs, such as plants and algae, which can use energy from sunlight (photoautotrophs) or inorganic compounds (lithoautotrophs) to produce organic compounds such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from inorganic carbon dioxide. These reduced carbon compounds can be used as an energy source by the autotroph and provide the energy in food consumed by heterotrophs. Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a naturally occurring chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and exists in Earth's atmosphere in this state, as a trace gas at a concentration of 0.039 per cent by volume.[1] As part of the carbon cycle known as photosynthesis, plants, algae, and cyanobacteria absorb carbon dioxide, light, and water to produce carbohydrate energy for themselves and oxygen as a waste product.[2] However, photosynthesis cannot occur in darkness. Small amounts of carbon dioxide are produced instead during the resultant respiration.[3] Carbon dioxide is also produced by combustion of coal or hydrocarbons, the fermentation of liquids and the breathing of humans and animals. In addition it is emitted from volcanoes, hot springs, geysers and other places where the earth’s crust is thin; and is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution. CO2 is also found in lakes at depth under the sea, and commingled with oil and gas deposits.[4] The environmental effects of carbon dioxide are of significant interest. In the earth's atmosphere, it acts as a greenhouse gas, playing a major role in global warming and anthropogenic climate change. It is also a major source of ocean acidification since it dissolves in water to form carbonic acid,[5] which is a weak acid as its ionization in water is incomplete. The carbon dioxide molecule is linear and centrosymmetric. The two C-O bonds are equivalent and are short (116.3 pm), consistent with double bonding.[6] Since it is centrosymmetric, the molecule has no electrical dipole. Consistent with this fact, only two vibrational bands are observed in the IR spectrum – an antisymmetic stretching mode at 2349 cm?1 and a bending mode near 666 cm?1. There is also a symmetric stretching mode at 1388 cm?1 which is only observed in the Raman spectrum. Carbon dioxide was one of the first gases to be described as a substance distinct from air. In the seventeenth century, the Flemish chemist Jan Baptist van Helmont observed that when he burned charcoal in a closed vessel, the mass of the resulting ash was much less than that of the original charcoal. His interpretation was that the rest of the charcoal had been transmuted into an invisible substance he termed a "gas" or "wild spirit" (spiritus sylvestre).[citation needed] The properties of carbon dioxide were studied more thoroughly in the 1750s by the Scottish physician Joseph Black. He found that limestone (calcium carbonate) could be heated or treated with acids to yield a gas he called "fixed air." He observed that the fixed air was denser than air and supported neither flame nor animal life. Black also found that when bubbled through an aqueous solution of lime (calcium hydroxide), it would precipitate calcium carbonate. He used this phenomenon to illustrate that carbon dioxide is produced by animal respiration and microbial fermentation. In 1772, English chemist Joseph Priestley published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air in which he described a process of dripping sulfuric acid (or oil of vitriol as Priestley knew it) on chalk in order to produce carbon dioxide, and forcing the gas to dissolve by agitating a bowl of water in contact with the gas.[12] This was the invention of Soda water.